Law is a systematic system of rules developed and enforced by governmental or social institutions to regulate conduct, with its exact definition subject to ongoing debate. It is perhaps best known as the art and science of law. The development of law can be traced through many years back to the periods when the different peoples of ancient civilizations were practicing their own forms of government. One of the most prominent characteristics of law is that it is founded on notions of morality, society and government that are considered to be universal and to be held in common by all civilized people.
A law is established by a legislative body or court. There are different types of laws that exist in different jurisdictions. A few of these are criminal laws, common law, administrative law, regulatory law, probate laws and civil law. Common law is the body of law that emanates from and is controlled by the government. Civil law is the body of law that controls and applies the equity or right of the state in cases involving individuals, property, contracts, trusts, property, professions and trusts, corporate law, family law, international law, family rights, domestic violence and criminal law. Criminal laws include felonies and misdemeanors, penalties for crimes, judgments and imprisonment, jury trials, laws governing insanity claims and capital punishment.
The legislatures of various states generally regulate criminal activities through their respective legislative bodies. The legislation can be passed by either the legislative body of a state or by a constituent assembly, which is made up of representatives of different interests in the legislature. In the United States, representatives of the states convene in joint session to discuss and decide on issues that are of common interest to the state. These assemblies are known as “legislature” or “senate” and are directly responsible for the regulation of laws that are enacted into law by the legislature.
Every country has a constitution that serves as its fundamental legal code. The constitution of a country is adopted by an election process. Once approved by the legislature, the constitution is entered into the constitution books of the country and becomes part of the basic law. The supreme court of a country can declare a constitution to be inadequate if it finds that some articles in the constitution are not properly drafted. In such a situation, the court can review the constitution and by implication alter the provisions of the constitution if necessary to remedy the inadequacy.
The legislative, executive and judicial branches of government at each level work under the constitution. There are many checks and balances that the constitution creates for the three branches. One important thing about the courts is that they cannot exceed their powers given to them under the constitution. Other checks on the courts include the requirement that they take judicial proceedings only in accord with the constitution, which requires the courts to have certain procedural practices that are consistent with the constitution. The other checks on the courts include that they must not take political actions that would in any way diminish the role of the courts, the duty of the courts to respect the confidentiality of court proceedings and the checks on the courts taking undue political action or actions in violation of their constitutional duty.
The creation of a legal system is a creation of power delegated by the constitution to the legislature. This power enables the legislature to pass laws that define the legal rights of citizens, regulate the profession of lawyers and establish the criteria for the proper performance of lawyers in a particular state. Law is therefore seen as having two essential aspects that are necessary for a civilized society and these aspects are separation of powers and judicial review.